Electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in strongly correlated systems
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In this work we investigate some aspects of the physics of strongly correlated systems by taking into account both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions as basic mechanisms for reproducing electronic correlations in real materials. The relevance of the electron-electron interactions is discussed in the first part of this thesis in the framework of a self-consistent theoretical approach, named Composite Operator Method (COM), which accounts for the relevant quasi-particle excitations in terms of a set of composite operators that appear as a result of the modification imposed by the interactions on the canonical electronic fields. We show that the COM allows the calculation of all the relevant Green’s and correlation functions in terms of a number of unknown internal parameters to be determined self-consistently. Therefore, depending on the balance between unknown parameters and self-consistent equations, exact and approximate solutions can be obtained. By way of example, we discuss the application of the COM to the extended t-U- J-h model in the atomic limit, and to the two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model. In the former case, we show that the COM provides the exact solution of the model in one dimension. We study the effects of electronic correlations as responsible for the formation of a plethora of different charge and/or spin orderings. We report the phase diagram of the model, as well as a detailed analysis of both zero and finite temperature single-particle and thermodynamic properties. As far as the single-band Hubbard model is concerned, we illustrate an approximated selfconsistent scheme based on the choice of a two-field basis. We report a detailed analysis of many unconventional features that arise in single-particle properties, thermodynamics and system’s response functions. We emphasize that the accuracy of the COM in describing the effects of electronic correlations strongly relies on the choice of the basis, paving the way for possible multi-pole extensions to the twofield theory. To this purpose, we also study a three-field approach to the single-band Hubbard model, showing a significant step forward in the agreements with numerical data with respect to the two-pole results. The role of the electron-phonon interaction in the physics of strongly correlated systems is discussed in the second part of this thesis. We show that in highly polarizable lattices the competition between unscreened Coulomb and Fröhlich interactions results in a short-range polaronic exchange term Jp that favours the formation of local and light pairs of bosonic nature, named bipolarons, which condense with a critical temperature well in excess of hundred kelvins. These findings, discussed in the framework of the so-called polaronic t-Jp model, are further investigated in the presence of a finite on-site potential ~U , coming from the competition between on-site Coulomb and Fröhlich interactions. We discuss the role of ~U as the driving parameter for a small-to-large bipolaron transition, providing a possible explanation of the BEC-BCS crossover in terms of the properties of the bipolaronic ground state. Finally, we show that a hard-core bipolarons gas, studied as a charged Bose-Fermi mixture, allows for the description of many non Fermi liquid behaviours, allowing also for a microscopic explanation of pseudogap features in terms of a thermal-induced recombination of polarons and bipolarons, without any assumption on preexisting order or broken symmetries. [edited by author]
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