|dc.description.abstract||Facing the question of the structure of theology (metatheology), this doctoral thesis aims to observe the nature of theology from a gnoseological point of view. In this perspective, this work focuses on two levels: on one hand, the possibility of human intellect (ex parte nostra); on the other hand, transferring the question on a transcendent speculative level, the assent of God to be known as the subject of theology (ex parte obiecti, ex parte Dei). Metatheological questions by the authors in the 14th century seem in fact to show the mark of a relationship between the research on the human possibility of knowledge and the nature of cognoscibile divinum, the true condition of possibility of the theological knowledge.
The thesis starts with a study of the Prologue of the Summa (1317) of the Carmelite theologian Gerard of Bologna. The second chapter is devoted to the Franciscan Peter Auriol. The last chapter deals with another Gerard, an Eremitan of saint Augustin, who started, with most evidence, to read the Sentences in Paris in 1327, and devoted a very large Prologue to theological methodology, marked with gnoseological approach. In this manner we have characterized a decade that represents a landscape in which to put our three authors.
In particular, although Gerard of Bologna does not pay particular attention to the gnoseological character of theological preliminary questions, he is a very interesting author in virtue of his eclecticism, because he represents an undeniable reference mark for the research on the following authors. By examining his speculation on theology, historians in fact can spare themselves from recollecting notions which have already been acquired by critical literature about authors at the end of 13th century and at the beginning of 14th century, because he has provided a concise summary of their work. In Peter Auriol and Gerard of Siena, instead, we have observed the gnoseological developments of metatheology on two levels: the assent of God to be scientifically known, and the possibility and limits of human intellect, respectively.
The result of this study is the remarkable observation of an effective rebuilding of metatheological questions in gnoseological perspective, starting from the comparison with the new deal of Duns Scotus and his theory of knowledge based on the Revelation. [edited by author]||en_US