L'effetto diretto nelle situazioni triangolari e relativi "limiti" nei rapporti orizzontali
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This article concerns the controversial issue of the limits of the invocability of EU directives in triangular situations. It occurs where an individual invokes against a public authority an obligation imposed on such authority by an unimplemented EU directive, affecting the legal position of a third party in a detrimental way (see, in particular, Fratelli Costanzo e Delena Walls cases). In this regard what is controversial is its detrimental side effect on the legal position of a third party, in consideration of the denial of horizontal direct effect. Indeed the distinction between vertical (admitted) and horizontal (not admitted) direct effects gives, in practice, to considerable problems. However, inter alia, the recent Farrell case of the EU Court of Justice of 2017 seems to suggest a revisiting and review critically the justifications for rejecting horizontal direct effect.