Sisters acts: converging signaling between CaMKII and CaMKIV, two members of the same family
Rusciano, Maria Rosaria
Maione, A. S.
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Calcium (Ca2+ ) is a universal second messenger that regulates a number of diverse cellular processes including cell proliferation, development, motility, secretion, learning and memory1, 2. A variety of stimuli, such as hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and neurotransmitters induce changes in the intracellular levels of Ca2+. The most ubiquitous and abundant protein that serves as a receptor to sense changes in Ca2+ concentrations is Calmodulin (CaM), thus mediating the role as second messenger of this ion. The Ca2+/CaM complex initiates a plethora of signaling cascades that culminate in alteration of cell functions. Among the many Ca2+/CaM binding proteins, the multifunctional protein kinases CaMKII and CaMKIV play pivotal roles in the cell.